There are more and more jobs becoming available in the United States security industry every day! Security forces are employed by private, public, and government agencies all across the country. After receiving one of the 35 Best Online Bachelor’s in Homeland Security Degrees, you will have more career opportunities in surveillance, protection services, and security jobs.

Homeland security is an industry that is projected to grow by 6 percent within the next eight years, and having a bachelor’s degree can give you that boost to getting a job in the industry. In 2016, there were over 1.1 million wage and salary employees in the security and surveillance industry, according to the Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Our rankings are based on several factors, all of which you can see on our sliding scale under each entry. Check out a more detailed description of our methodology.

What is a Homeland Security degree?

A homeland security degree teaches students what it takes to protect the United States from acts of terrorism and violence. Students will learn all the basics of the criminal justice field along with how to respond to natural and human made disasters.

Lower level classes will introduce the foundations of law and criminal justice, while the upper division courses focus on what it takes to be a special agent or security officer and how to work in such an in demand field.

How much can you earn with a Homeland Security bachelor’s degree?

According to Glassdoor, special agents working for the U.S. Department of Homeland Security make an average of $126,348 a year. Graduates working as operations support specialists and transportation security specialists can make from $54,000 a year to $94,000 annually. The average preferred training for many of the jobs in this field is a bachelor’s degree!

Of course, your earning potential is dependent upon your education, what industry you work in, and in what city you choose to work.

What is required for a Homeland Security degree?

All the programs mentioned in the list have ranging requirements. Schools who have a homeland security degree program typically require students to complete general education courses before they begin the course of their major. Some schools also requires certain documents and test scores for admission into the university.

The need for test scores depends on which program you choose to apply to, and the required amount of time and units vary for each degree. During your courses, you will learn estimation control, quality analysis, project communication, and how to build projects with a group.

  1. Eastern Kentucky University

    Tuition in State/Out of State: $9,366/$18,250
    Acceptance72
    Earnings Potential63
    Online Presence90
    Online Program Quality85
    Retention52
    Student Satisfaction79
    Reputation100
    Pros
    • Only 15 credit hours of general education classes
    • 8 week terms
    • Personalized graduation plan
    Cons
    • Must have SAT or ACT scores Or
    • Need 2.0 GPA for admission
    • May have to take placement exam if no SAT or ACT scores
    100%OSR Score

    At Eastern Kentucky University students learn all the basics of being in the security field. Courses discuss how to be a security officer, handling disasters, and modern crisis techniques. In 120 credit hours students will be able to apply for any security job and work in this growing field!

  2. Arizona State University

    Tuition in State/Out of State: $10,792/$27,372
    Acceptance80
    Earnings Potential78
    Online Presence100
    Online Program Quality88
    Retention62
    Student Satisfaction76
    Reputation90
    Pros
    • 7.5 week classes
    • Ability to transfer up to 12 credit hours
    • International students accepted into program
    Cons
    • Must have 2.5 GPA if transferring
    • $70 application fee
    • Must have SAT or ACT scores
    98%OSR Score

    ASU teaches students about how to work in the security and public service safety. Lower division courses cover public service methods and statistics. Upper division classes will focus on the details of homeland security and contemporary policy changes.

  3. Liberty University

    Tuition in State/Out of State: $21,310/$21,310
    Acceptance75
    Earnings Potential61
    Online Presence100
    Online Program Quality76
    Retention61
    Student Satisfaction84
    Reputation95
    Pros
    • 3.5 years to complete
    • Up to 75 percent of credit transferable
    • Military benefits of 25 percent tuition discount
    Cons
    • $100 graduation fee
    • $199 per semester technology fee
    • $50 application fee
    97%OSR Score

    At Liberty University students are taught 100 percent online about the homeland security field. Courses involve discussing how to protect citizens from acts of terrorism and natural disasters. Classes also cover the United States and our history with dealing with threats and protection.

  4. Angelo State University

    Tuition in State/Out of State: $7,201/$17,161
    Acceptance67
    Earnings Potential71
    Online Presence70
    Online Program Quality76
    Retention47
    Student Satisfaction81
    Reputation93
    Pros
    • SAT or ACT scores only needed if applying for a scholarship
    • Transfer credits accepted
    • International students accepted into program
    Cons
    • Must complete a minor
    • $50 international student fee
    • $1480 in miscellaneous fees
    93%OSR Score

    The core curriculum discusses basic subjects such as math, statistics, and psychology. Upper division classes focus mostly on border security and how to work in this field. Students in the military also receive benefits such as a tuition discount or discount on books!

  5. Keiser University

    Tuition in State/Out of State: $19,224/$19,224
    Acceptance73
    Earnings Potential58
    Online Presence77
    Online Program Quality76
    Retention78
    Student Satisfaction80
    Reputation89
    Pros
    • Assistance for active military, dependents, and veterans
    • Small class sizes
    • Career assistance for graduates
    Cons
    • $100 withdrawal fee
    • Possible other fees may be included
    • $55 application fee
    92%OSR Score

    At Keiser University students will be educated on the security practices that are necessary to keep a country safe. The program will focus on management skills to train students to be leaders in this field. Courses discuss emergency plans, terrorist responses, and threats to society.

  6. Saint Leo University

    Tuition in State/Out of State: $22,220/$22,220
    Acceptance69
    Earnings Potential63
    Online Presence79
    Online Program Quality84
    Retention41
    Student Satisfaction77
    Reputation87
    Pros
    Cons
    • $45 application fee
    • Annual tuition increases
    • Must pay for books
    89%OSR Score

    This bachelor’s in criminal justice teaches students how to respond to acts of terrorism and defend the United States. The program focuses on discussing events of terrorism and threats. Courses also cover cyber analysis, immigration enforcement, and police tactics.

  7. California University of Pennsylvania

    Tuition in State/Out of State: $10,840/$15,326
    Acceptance65
    Earnings Potential63
    Online Presence86
    Online Program Quality81
    Retention65
    Student Satisfaction75
    Reputation82
    Pros
    • 19:1 student-to-faculty ratio
    • #18 ranking as best online bachelor of criminal justice degree program by BestDegreePrograms.org in 2016
    • Accredited by the Middle States Commission on Higher Education
    Cons
    • Fees may range depending on course
    • $85 university service fee
    • $300 student association fee
    89%OSR Score

    This 100 percent online program will train students to work in the criminal justice field of security. Students will learn the essentials of criminal justice and security. Courses will discuss how to deal with terrorism on a global scale and all about criminal justice correction.

  8. Anderson University (IN)

    Tuition in State/Out of State: $29,710/$29,710
    Acceptance70
    Earnings Potential66
    Online Presence67
    Online Program Quality41
    Retention69
    Student Satisfaction81
    Reputation94
    Pros
    • Disability resource center available
    • Tutoring center available for students
    • Transfer students accepted into program
    Cons
    • $10 online delivery fee per course
    • $40 application fee
    • Transfer students under 21 may have to complete other documentation
    88%OSR Score

    Anderson University offers an online program where students can learn about security from their own home. The homeland security concentration focuses on teaching about how to handle an emergency in the United States. Course also discuss communications and management.

  9. Mercer University

    Tuition in State/Out of State: $36,000/$36,000
    Acceptance81
    Earnings Potential68
    Online Presence67
    Online Program Quality82
    Retention74
    Student Satisfaction80
    Reputation80
    Pros
    • 8 week sessions
    • Veteran benefits and grants
    • Ability to transfer credits
    Cons
    • Books and supplies not included in tuition
    • Must have SAT or ACT scores
    • Must submit personal essay in application
    88%OSR Score

    Students will be educated on disaster services, emergency response, and immigration services. This program is designed for students looking to work as emergency responders or in the criminal justice field. Courses will cover all necessary information to be an emergency responder after graduation.

  10. Regent University

    Tuition in State/Out of State: $17,288/$17,288
    Acceptance72
    Earnings Potential66
    Online Presence94
    Online Program Quality86
    Retention48
    Student Satisfaction85
    Reputation74
    Pros
    • Transfer credits accepted
    • SAT and ACT scores not required
    • Regent ranked #3 among the top Yellow Ribbon online schools 2017 according to Guide to Online Schools
    Cons
    • Tuition rates and fees subject to change
    • $550 student services fee per semester
    • $50 application fee
    87%OSR Score

    Regent University teaches students the fundamentals of having a career in criminal justice. Graduates go on to work in border patrol, protective and probation work, and in homeland security. Other courses also discuss public speaking, criminology, theories, and terrorism.

  11. National University

    Tuition in State/Out of State: $13,016/$13,016
    Acceptance73
    Earnings Potential61
    Online Presence97
    Online Program Quality79
    Retention63
    Student Satisfaction63
    Reputation77
    Pros
    • Ability to get Emergency Medical Technician Certificate
    • Chat live available for online help
    • Military discount on tuition
    Cons
    • Must have 3.0 GPA to enter program
    • General fees non-refundable
    • $100 graduation fee
    86%OSR Score

    At National University students are able to learn about homeland security and crisis management. Courses include crisis management tactics, emergency response techniques, and emergency preparedness. Once graduated students will be able to work for government agencies such as homeland security.

  12. American Public University System

    Tuition in State/Out of State: $6,880/$6,880
    Acceptance73
    Earnings Potential70
    Online Presence96
    Online Program Quality84
    Retention72
    Student Satisfaction71
    Reputation68
    Pros
    • No admission fee
    • No registration fees
    • 8-week courses
    Cons
    • $100 graduation fee
    • $250 fee for graduate exam
    • $50 technology fee
    85%OSR Score

    This program will teach students about how homeland security is integrated with politics. Students will analyze strategies and tactics of homeland security during the program. Courses will also discuss technological, natural, and terrorist threats.

  13. Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University

    Tuition in State/Out of State: $34,822/$34,822
    Acceptance73
    Earnings Potential72
    Online Presence76
    Online Program Quality90
    Retention53
    Student Satisfaction78
    Reputation76
    Pros
    • Military discount for active duty and National Guard
    • Online help for faculty available
    • Ability to transfer credits
    Cons
    • Minor required
    • Books and supplies not included in tuition
    • Must have 2.5 GPA for admission
    84%OSR Score

    This bachelor’s of science degree will educated students on risk assessment, emergency management, and security. Students will study methods and research to learn the background of security in the United States. Graduates will be able to work in any security or criminal justice related field once the program has been completed.

  14. Mississippi College

    Tuition in State/Out of State: $17,392/$17,392
    Acceptance78
    Earnings Potential67
    Online Presence70
    Online Program Quality41
    Retention77
    Student Satisfaction82
    Reputation81
    Pros
    • 7-week courses
    • Transfer credit accepted
    • Mississippi College is authorized by the Mississippi Commission on College Accreditation (MCCA)
    Cons
    • $25 per semester technology fee
    • Registration fees (vary per amount of credits)
    • Tuition rates and fees are subject to change
    84%OSR Score

    During this program students will learn about the basics of criminal justice and also different topics involving security. Courses cover security management and the different types of terrorism. Graduates go on to work in law enforcement, security, emergency management, and intelligence analysis.

  15. Colorado Technical University

    Tuition in State/Out of State: $11,689/$11,689
    Acceptance73
    Earnings Potential70
    Online Presence79
    Online Program Quality80
    Retention41
    Student Satisfaction71
    Reputation76
    Pros
    • Chat live for online help available
    • Voted in Best Online Programs by U.S. News and World Report
    • Ability to connect with admissions advisor before applying
    Cons
    • $125 technology fee
    • $150 graduation fee
    • Some transfer credits not accepted
    83%OSR Score

    CTU of Colorado Springs will teach students all about the fundamentals of criminal justice homeland security practices. Classes cover psychology and fear management in regards to terrorism as well as counterintelligence. Other upper division classes discuss emergency management and evaluating risk in critical infrastructure.

  16. Brandman University

    Tuition in State/Out of State: $12,360/$12,360
    Acceptance73
    Earnings Potential63
    Online Presence78
    Online Program Quality82
    Retention60
    Student Satisfaction66
    Reputation74
    Pros
    • WSCUC Senior College and University Commission (WSCUC)
    • California Commission on Teacher Credentialing (CCTC)
    • Technology support for online help on school website
    Cons
    • Must have 2.0 GPA to enter university
    • Must have 12 transferable credits to enter university if no high school diploma/GED
    • Minor required to complete
    83%OSR Score

    This bachelor’s of arts in criminal justice will educate students on evidence, forensics, and immigration and national security. Lower division courses discuss the criminal justice system basics such as corrections and methods. Upper division courses cover the foundations of law and diversity in homeland security.

  17. Florida Institute of Technology

    Tuition in State/Out of State: $37,460/$37,460
    Acceptance73
    Earnings Potential70
    Online Presence91
    Online Program Quality75
    Retention73
    Student Satisfaction71
    Reputation66
    Pros
    • 8 week courses
    • Average degree completion in 4 years
    • Live chat for online help available
    Cons
    • Admission requirements are subject to change
    • Certain states restricted from online program
    • Must get C minus or better in a class to transfer credit(s)
    81%OSR Score

    FIT trains students for high level position in the homeland security field. Students will be taught about law enforcement and security risks. Upper division courses focuses emergency management, psychology, and comparative criminal justice systems.

  18. LeTourneau University

    Tuition in State/Out of State: $29,320/$29,320
    Acceptance81
    Earnings Potential59
    Online Presence67
    Online Program Quality41
    Retention65
    Student Satisfaction76
    Reputation82
    Pros
    • Transfer credits accepted
    • Veteran and military benefits
    • Credit by examination available
    Cons
    • SAT or ACT scores required
    • $100 tuition deposit
    • Must have 2.0 GPA for admission
    81%OSR Score

    This degree with a homeland security concentration teaches students all about how to protect society. Students will learn about risk assessment and emergency management. Courses also focus on court-terrorism hazard risk assessment.

  19. Purdue University--West Lafayette

    Tuition in State/Out of State: $9,992/$28,794
    Acceptance83
    Earnings Potential72
    Online Presence73
    Online Program Quality86
    Retention85
    Student Satisfaction83
    Reputation58
    Pros
    • Chat live for online help available
    • Military tuition discounts
    • Application fee waived
    Cons
    • Must go through interview for admission processes
    • Technology fee
    • Computer and technology requirements
    80%OSR Score

    This program will teach students all the fundamentals of working in the criminal justice field.  Students will also learn about methods and techniques of in the research part of this field. Courses discuss criminal law, issues and challenges in homeland security, and the principles of criminal justice.

  20. Thomas Edison State University

    Tuition in State/Out of State: $7,300/$9,820
    Acceptance73
    Earnings Potential69
    Online Presence67
    Online Program Quality41
    Retention67
    Student Satisfaction67
    Reputation78
    Pros
    • May transfer up to 117 credits
    • Military tuition discount
    • Ability to chat with admission faculty online
    Cons
    • $75 non-refundable application fee
    • $332 graduation fee
    • Tuition and fees are subject to change
    80%OSR Score

    This bachelor’s in homeland security and emergency management will educate students on prevention and preparedness. Classes will focus on learning about risk assessment in natural disasters, law enforcement, and decision making in the post 9/11 era. These classes are designed to prepare students for intense jobs in this important field.

  21. Utica College

    Tuition in State/Out of State: $20,676/$20,676
    Acceptance73
    Earnings Potential69
    Online Presence70
    Online Program Quality81
    Retention70
    Student Satisfaction71
    Reputation68
    Pros
    • Accredited by the Commission on Higher Education of the Middle States Association of Colleges and Schools
    • SAT and ACT scores not required
    • Virtual open house available
    Cons
    • Must have 2.5 GPA to be admitted to college
    • $40 application fee
    • International students have extra requirements
    80%OSR Score

    With this bachelor’s of science students will know all about cybersecurity as well as cyber operations. Students will also learn about investigations and the undercover side of criminal justice. Graduates will be able to work as internal fraud auditors, bank examiners, and securities fraud analysts.

  22. Tulane University of Louisiana

    Tuition in State/Out of State: $52,960/$52,960
    Acceptance89
    Earnings Potential77
    Online Presence67
    Online Program Quality41
    Retention96
    Student Satisfaction76
    Reputation75
    Pros
    • Career advising appointments available
    • Student advisors to assist with course planning
    • Online and technology help available for students
    Cons
    • Must have 3.0 GPA to be admitted into university
    • $40 application fee
    • $60 academic support fee
    79%OSR Score

    This degree program will focus on multiple types of keeping the nation secure. The courses include learning about cyber security and emergency management skills and tactics. Graduates go on to work as security analysts, safety managers, protection analysts, and disaster recovery coordinators.

  23. SUNY College of Technology--Canton

    Tuition in State/Out of State: $8,130/$12,320
    Acceptance65
    Earnings Potential60
    Online Presence73
    Online Program Quality83
    Retention86
    Student Satisfaction82
    Reputation61
    Pros
    • Ability to meet with a counselor
    • Virtual tours available
    • Average class size of 17 students
    Cons
    • $1759 in fees per year
    • Books not included in tuition
    • $177 technology fee
    79%OSR Score

    CSU of New York will cover all the basics of working in security and criminal justice. This is a four year program that will cover investigations and homeland security practices. Courses include learning about analysis and civil liberty issues as well.

  24. Excelsior College

    Tuition in State/Out of State: $18,360/$18,360
    Acceptance73
    Earnings Potential54
    Online Presence67
    Online Program Quality41
    Retention74
    Student Satisfaction76
    Reputation78
    Pros
    • Military and veteran benefits and discounts
    • Ability to transfer credits
    • Ability to speak with admissions counselor
    Cons
    • $50 application fee
    • $1,095 enrollment fee
    • $495 graduation fee
    79%OSR Score

    This program focuses on homeland security and all the benefits you can get from receiving this type of degree. Courses discuss topics such as terrorism, domestics and international terrorism, and incident response and management. These courses will train students to work in this growing field.

  25. Southern New Hampshire University

    Tuition in State/Out of State: $31,136/$31,136
    Acceptance73
    Earnings Potential47
    Online Presence67
    Online Program Quality41
    Retention46
    Student Satisfaction76
    Reputation81
    Pros
    • Live chat for online help available
    • No application fee
    • No SAT or ACT score requirements
    Cons
    • $150 graduation fee
    • Course material fees may vary
    • 2.75 GPA requirement for admission
    77%OSR Score

    At SNHU students will be educated on homeland security efforts and policy skills. Lower level courses discuss criminal law and criminal justice basics. Upper division courses will cover intelligence and terrorism techniques.

  26. Troy University

    Tuition in State/Out of State: $8,692/$16,276
    Acceptance73
    Earnings Potential64
    Online Presence91
    Online Program Quality70
    Retention57
    Student Satisfaction80
    Reputation55
    Pros
    • Live chat available for online help
    • English as a second language program for international students
    • Student disability center available
    Cons
    • $42 general university fee per semester
    • $50 registration fee per semester
    • Non-refundable $30 application fee
    76%OSR Score

    Troy University will train students for high level careers in the criminal justice field. Graduates go on to become police officers, CIA and FBI agents, private investigators, and security officers. Students may also get a certificate in cyber-security at the university.

  27. Mercy College

    Tuition in State/Out of State: $18,714/$18,714
    Acceptance73
    Earnings Potential66
    Online Presence81
    Online Program Quality65
    Retention65
    Student Satisfaction69
    Reputation57
    Pros
    • 24/7 accessibility to online classroom
    • Military discounts on tuition
    • U.S. News top college for online education
    Cons
    • Online website difficult to navigate
    • Transfer credits must be evaluated
    • Online program fees
    73%OSR Score

    This corporate and homeland security bachelor’s of science degree teaches all about security and protection. Courses will cover all the topics in criminal justice students will need to know to work in this field. Courses include security crisis management and advanced risk management.

  28. University of Maryland-University College

    Tuition in State/Out of State: $7,296/$12,336
    Acceptance73
    Earnings Potential47
    Online Presence67
    Online Program Quality41
    Retention36
    Student Satisfaction76
    Reputation67
    Pros
    • Can transfer up to 90 credits
    • Career assistance and services
    • Course and academic advising available
    Cons
    • $50 application fee
    • $15 technology
    • Fees and tuition may change
    71%OSR Score

    The University of Maryland teaches students all about how homeland security is a necessary field. Upper division courses discuss homeland security response and international relations. Lower level courses will cover basic criminal justice practices, and students will also complete an internship.

  29. Concordia University Texas

    Tuition in State/Out of State: $30,600/$30,600
    Acceptance68
    Earnings Potential68
    Online Presence68
    Online Program Quality41
    Retention66
    Student Satisfaction79
    Reputation61
    Pros
    • Available assistance from admissions counselor
    • Transfer credits accepted
    • Concordia University Texas is accredited by the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools Commission on Colleges
    Cons
    • Must have 2.5 GPA to be admitted
    • Need SAT or ACT scores
    • $25 enrollment fee for payments plans
    71%OSR Score

    At Concordia University students will learn about criminal justice practices in the homeland security field. This program educates students on the methods and foundations of criminology and security practices. These courses will train students to be trial judges, FBI agents, and profilers.

  30. Trident University International

    Tuition in State/Out of State: $9,240/$9,240
    Acceptance73
    Earnings Potential56
    Online Presence67
    Online Program Quality41
    Retention21
    Student Satisfaction76
    Reputation67
    Pros
    • Military and veteran discount on tuition
    • No fees for books or course materials
    • No technology fees
    Cons
    • Must have 2.0 GPA to be admitted
    • Must have 2.0 GPA if transferring over 24 credits
    • $150 graduation fee
    70%OSR Score

    This 100 percent online degree will prepare students for a career in criminal justice and the homeland security field. Courses will cover decision making and action plans in the criminal justice field. Students will also learn about problem solving skills in emergency management plans.

  31. Clayton State University

    Tuition in State/Out of State: $5,419/$15,880
    Acceptance73
    Earnings Potential64
    Online Presence67
    Online Program Quality41
    Retention65
    Student Satisfaction75
    Reputation57
    Pros
    • Virtual viewbook of courses and online university
    • Benefits and assistance for senior citizen students
    • Transfer credits accepted
    Cons
    • $40 application
    • SAT and ACT scores needed
    • $57 technology fee
    70%OSR Score

    CSU trains students to become leaders in the homeland security field. This 100 percent online programs covers emergency management and emergency response. Courses will cover all the necessary information to work as an emergency responder or security officer.

  32. Grantham University

    Tuition in State/Out of State: $6,540/$6,540
    Acceptance73
    Earnings Potential56
    Online Presence67
    Online Program Quality41
    Retention33
    Student Satisfaction76
    Reputation80
    Pros
    • Live chat for online help available
    • Average completion in 38 months
    • Military and veteran discount on tuition
    Cons
    • $38 fee for books per credit hour
    • $80 graduation fee
    • $45 non-refundable technology fee
    68%OSR Score

    GU educates students on how to become security managers, probation officers, and private detectives. Courses cover emergency and disaster planning for all the various types of threats. Computer science courses are also offered to teach students about cyber security.

  33. Touro University Worldwide

    Tuition in State/Out of State: $14,600/$14,600
    Acceptance73
    Earnings Potential56
    Online Presence67
    Online Program Quality41
    Retention50
    Student Satisfaction76
    Reputation79
    Pros
    • 8-week terms
    • No technology fees
    • Transfer credits accepted
    Cons
    • $200 graduation fee
    • Transfer credits limited depending on college/university transferring from
    • Must have 2.0 GPA to transfer
    67%OSR Score

    Touro University educates students on emergency disaster management in homeland security. Students will be able to work in government and private sectors once they have completed the program. Students will also learn about working for non profit organizations and working as emergency responders.

  34. Waldorf University

    Tuition in State/Out of State: $21,664/$21,664
    Acceptance64
    Earnings Potential56
    Online Presence67
    Online Program Quality41
    Retention70
    Student Satisfaction76
    Reputation75
    Pros
    • Free shipping for textbooks
    • Active duty military receive fee waivers
    • accredited by the Higher Learning Commission (HLC)
    Cons
    • Must maintain 2.0 GPA
    • All fees are non-refundable
    • $35 online library fee
    65%OSR Score

    In a post 9/11 era, Waldorf University aims to teach students how to respond to acts of terrorism. The program will teach students about how threats can harm the United States and how responders should handle them. Courses include prevention, planning, and strategies in homeland security.

  35. Herzing University-Atlanta

    Tuition in State/Out of State: $13,850/$13,850
    Acceptance73
    Earnings Potential56
    Online Presence67
    Online Program Quality41
    Retention39
    Student Satisfaction76
    Reputation75
    Pros
    • Live chat available for online help
    • Ability to visit online campus
    • Disability accommodation for students
    Cons
    • Must supply exam results from SAT or ACT
    • $435 books and materials fee
    • Enrollment fee varies
    63%OSR Score

    Herzing University has a program designed to educate students on how to keep the United States safe. Students will be trained to work for private companies and also government agencies. Courses include discussing critical incidents, potential problems in the nation, and intelligence.