What Is the Purpose of Early Childhood Education?

Early childhood care and education (ECCE) is a comprehensive educational process that seeks to lay a solid foundation for children’s future learning and welfare.

It does so by nurturing and strengthening their physical, cognitive, emotional, and social needs. In early education, children also improve their language and motor skills. 

At the core of things, ECCE is focused on teaching children how to learn and behave, all while building their confidence and resilience within the context of a classroom. 

What Ages Are ‘Early Childhood’?

Experts typically agree that early childhood comprises the ages between birth to about eight years old. It is during this period that children go through the most rapid and intense phase of growth and development, and it is when children are most influenced and impacted by their surrounding environment; these years are considered to be the most critical. 

According to scientists, at this point in life, a child’s brain has the highest potential to soak in new information. The way children perceive the world, their moral outlook, and their cognitive and social skills are all largely established during these years, serving as a foundation for – what will hopefully become – their happy and prosperous future.

What Is Early Childhood Education?

Early childhood education can encompass any type of educational program that contributes to a child’s academic and personal development prior to attending kindergarten. The variety of such programs is very broad and differs not only between states, but also between neighboring schools.

These programs are typically designed for a specific age (three, four, or five-year-old children), and they may be provided in a wide range of settings, such as nursery schools, childcare or daycare centers, or preschool classrooms. Busy parents also have an option to enroll their children on a year-round schedule to include summer months. Early childhood education may be privately run, operated by a local school system, or through a federally funded program like Head Start.

What Are the Elements of an Early Childhood Education Program?

According to the National Education Association, a high-quality early childhood education has to include the following crucial elements:

  • A comprehensive curriculum that covers all the essential areas of development
  • A broad service network that deals with health, nutrition, and responds to family needs
  • An assessment system designed to identify concerns and improve the learning process
  • The appointment of qualified and appropriately paid teachers
  • Small classes with a low teacher-to-child ratio

Alternatively, the U.S. Department of Education has established that the effectiveness of an early childhood program depends on a number of factors, such as having a suitable environment, parent participation, appropriate grouping practices, compatible scheduling, and competent staff. Additionally, the agency recognizes the following characteristics of a high-quality childhood education program:

  • Frequent progress monitoring
  • Healthy and nutritious meal plans 
  • Regular communication between staff and parents
  • A balanced schedule comprising group and individual learning activities
  • A safe, supportive, and stimulating learning environment
  • A comprehensive curriculum that addresses all areas of a child’s growth

What Are the Benefits of Early Childcare Education?

Despite the U.S. Department of Education recognizing the importance of early child care and education as a fundamental stage in learning, it is not mandatory, unlike elementary and secondary education, which require students to attend by law.

Multiple studies performed in past years have shown several significant benefits resulting from participation in ECCE. Reduced risk of health and mental health problems, improved self-sufficiency throughout the maturing period, and a reduction in the educational achievement gap between low and high-income students can be cited, among others.

The most significant effect of early childhood care and education is, of course, improved performance in future education and heightened social skills. Some studies run by schools have produced noteworthy results, highlighting how enrollment in quality ECCE programs can result in better graduation rates and even greater earning potential upon entering adulthood.